Agriculture

Summary of agriculture

Solved exercise of agriculture

Summary

The practice of growing plants on a large scale for food or other purpose is called agriculture.Agriculture is the main occupation of the farmers. So farmers are also called agriculturists. Agriculturists engage themselves in agriculture and related activities to lead their life.

Plants grown on field are called crops. Agriculture departments has found that crops cultivated on 67,649 hectares of land in the district have been lost due to deficient rainfall. Some of the crops which are grown in our district  Kolar are ragi, horsegram, mulberry.

Farm Labourers

They do not have their own agricultural land. They work in some other person’s field to earn their living. Many rules have been implemented to solve the problems of the farm labourers.

Small scale farmers

Small scale farmers own a piece of land of their own. They sell the crop, they grow in their field and earn money to lead life. They also face a number of problems. Shortage of money to cultivate the land.  As the land holding is little, their earning is not self sufficient to lead the family. • Many times they don’t get water for the land because of poor irrigation facilities. • They lack proper guidance to grow crops that suit soil fertility of their land or the season.

A number of steps have been taken to solve their problems

Monetary aid through bank loans

Irrigation facilities through canals

Apart from these, many more solutions have been provided to these farmers.

Large scale farmers:

large scale farmers own more agricultural land.

They purchase and use modern agricultural equipment’s.

They store the grains in barns (godowns) and sell it when they get a better price.

 They utilize the monetary facilities of the banks .Their income is high as they grow different crop.

Agricultural land has been classified into two categories.

1) Rain fed agricultural land

 2) Irrigated agricultural land

 Rain Fed agricultural land:Agricultural land which falls under less rainfall areas is called rain-fed agricultural land. Crops which require less water and are suitable for that soil, are grown there. Rain-fed cultivation is called kuski or dry land cultivation.

2. Irrigated agricultural land:Water is an important wealth for farmers. Cultivation of crops is impossible without water. Rain is the main source of water. We don’t get rain all the time. So water is stored in different sources and utilized to cultivate the land. Apart from rain, water is supplied to the crops from ponds, canals, wells and bore wells. Cultivating the land using water from any of these sources is called irrigated agriculture.

Irrigated Crops

Sugar cane, paddy, cotton, are grown depending upon the soil quality of the irrigated land. These crops are called irrigated crops.

Sources of Irrigation:Water is available for agricultural land from ponds, canals, wells and bore wells. They are called sources of Irrigation.

To avoid wastage of water

1) Drip irrigation : In drip irrigation, water is supplied to the roots of the crops drop by drop. Water is distribute through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. Depending on how well designed, installed, maintained, and operated.

2) Spray (sprinkles) irrigation: water is sprayed over the crops uniformly as in rainfall.

Uses of drip irrigation and spray irrigation

Drip irrigation is used in farms, commercial greenhouses, and residential gardens. Drip irrigation for garden available in drip kits are increasingly popular for the homeowner and consist of a timer, hose and emitter. And the Spray irrigation they are also used for cooling and for the control of airborne dust.

Organic farming:-Organic farming is a method of crop and livestock production that involves much more than choosing not to use pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones. In organic farming manure, green leaves compost, vermi-compost and organic pesticides are used to grow crops.

In chemical farming, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow crops.

Some of the methods of Cultivation

1. Intensive farming : Growing 2 to 3 crops on the same land in a year. For Example, jowar, paddy, ragi, sunflower, cotton, horsegram, bengalgram, redgram.

2. Mixed farming : In addition to cultivation of crops cattle rearing, poultry, sericulture and agriculture are also done.

3. Plantation farming : Fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea or flowers are grown instead of food crops on the agricultural lands.

Storing and preserving the grains after the harvest of the crop is also very important. Food grains/products are being grown on large scale. Granaries have been constructed to store and preserve food grains/products.

Agriculture and farmers are like two wheels of a cart. Agriculture is the main occupation of our country. People who lead life following the profession of agriculture are the real food providers (Annadatas).

If the cultivator harvests, the whole world rejoices. If the cultivator fails to harvest, the whole world sobs.

Exercise

Additional question and answer

1.What is agriculture?

Ans:The practice of growing plants on a large scale for food or other purpose is called agriculture.

2.How many stages are there in agriculture? Write them in an order.

  1. Ploughing of field.
  2. Use of the fertilizers
  3. Sowing of seeds
  4. Irrigation of field
  5. Protection of crops
  6. Harvesting of crops.

3.How is crop rotation useful to farmers?

Ans:Crop-rotation is useful to keep the soil fertile.

4.What is a seed drill?

Ans:Sowing of seeds is done manually or by an instrument called seed drill.

5.Who introduced high yielding varieties of wheat in India?

Ans:M.S. Swaminathan

6.What are crops?

Plants grown on field are called crops.

7.What is ploughing?

Ans:The process of turning and loosening of the soil is called ploughing.

8.What are broadcasting of seeds?

Ans:Sowing of seeds by scattering over a large area is called broadcasting of seeds.

9.Define irrigation

Ans:It is process by which sufficient quantity of water is supplied to the crop and plants through canals, wells, tube wells and reservoirs.

10.What is pesticides?

Ans:A substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants.

11.Define mixed Cropping? Give one example.

Ans:Cultivation of two or more crops on the same field at the same season is called mixed cropping.
Eg: Growing jower with toorda.

12.Which includes in harvesting of crops.

  1. Cutting and gathering of ripened crops.
  2. Processing such as drying, sorting cleaning and other tanks depending on the crop.
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