NATURAL RESOURCES

Summary of natural resources

Solved exercise of natural resources

Summary

Water, soil, air, minerals, plants, animals etc., which occur naturally on earth are called resources. These resources are necessary for all living organisms including man. These are the most valuable things in the progress of mankind.

Renewable Resources

The resources which  are continuously available over the period of human life time, these resources are called renewable resources. Example  Resources like solar energy, air, water, soil, forest etc.

Non-renewable Resources

Resources like coal, petrol, diesel, and natural gases will run out due to their continuous usage. Such resources cannot be renewed. Hence these resources are called as non-renewable resources.

Solar Energy

Solar energy is the energy obtained from the sun. Sun is the main source of heat and light to the earth. We get light and heat from the sun. plants prepare their food using solar energy.

Soil

Soil is a mixture  of organic mater, minerals, gases, liquids , and organisms that together support life.Soil is also a renewable resource like water. Soil is necessary for the growth of plants. measure to prevent soil erosion are

  • Afforestation: One of the best ways to conserve soil is to increase the area under forests. …
  • Checking Overgrazing: Grazing is very important. …
  • Constructing Dams: One of the scientific methods to check soil erosion.
  • Changing Agricultural Practices.

Contour farming

Contour farming : Farming according to the shape of land to prevent soil erosion is called contour farming.Contour cultivation (contour farming, contour plowing, or contour bunding) is a sustainable way of farming where farmers plant crops across or perpendicular to slopes to follow the contours of a slope of a field. This arrangement of plants breaks up the flow of water and makes it harder for soil erosion to occur.

Forests

Forests are the natural habitat of wild animals and birds. They provide the necessary food to the animals and many useful materials to man. Forests are also one of the natural resources. They provide fruits, flowers, medicinal plants, wood etc,. Forests are the shelters for tribals. Forests prevent soil erosion (washing or blowing away of top soil). The trees give out oxygen and increase its quantity in the atmosphere. Such useful and valuable forests are being destroyed for various human activities like urbanization, industrialization, construction of dams etc,. We must not forget that destruction of forests is destruction of life.

Conservation of forests

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The Government is maintaining and conserving national forests through the forest department. Forests can be conserved by restricting unnecessary felling of trees, tree planting, proper usage of forest products, cutting down tree branches causing forest fire etc, The Government has made amendment to National Forest Policy in 1988 and has taken many steps to nurture and conserve the forests.

Fuels

Fuels are substances which release heat and energy on burning. We use fuel for many purposes. Example : running vehicles, cooking food. Fossil fuels are formed by the remains of extinct plants and animals which were buried under the earth’s crust over millions of years. The main fossil fuels are petroleum, natural gas and Coal.

Petroleum

Petrol, diesel, kerosene, wax etc., are the by-products of petroleum. Petroleum is a liquid mineral formed beneath the earth. It is formed by the action of bacteria, heat and pressure on dead organisms buried under the layers of the rocks. The by-products of petroleum like wax and paraffin are used in making candles, wood polish, ointments, dyes, lipsticks, chemical fertilizers, vaseline jelly, etc

Natural gas

Natural gas is found with petroleum in petroleum wells. Compressed natural gas is used as an alternative fuel to petrol and diesel to run vehicles.

Coal

The remains of plants and trees that were buried beneath the earth’s crust did not decay completely. Due to the high temperature and pressure, they turned into coal under the layers of the rocks. This is used as fuel in the production of electricity. This source of energy is also used in industries.

Mineral resources

Minerals are formed in the earth as a result of prolonged natural process. They are available along with rocks in the surface of the earth. Minerals are extracted in the form of ore, refined in factories and metals are separated from them. Example : Separation of iron from iron ore, Metals like aluminium, copper, silver etc., are extracted from their ores.It is a multi useful material available in nature. Its composition can be represented by the chemical formula

The availability of natural resources that fulfill our needs is not uniform everywhere. The quality of available resources is also not the same. As a result of excessive usage (more than our requirements) there is scarcity of such natural resources

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