The elixir of life by C V Raman
II. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS :
A. Answer briefly the following questions.
- What is the imaginary elixir of life?
Answer:The divine amrita which can make man immortal
2.What according to the writer is the real elixir of life?
Answer: According to the writer the real elixir of life refers to Plain water.
3.What is the ‘wonderful difference’ the writer talks about in paragraph 2?
Answer:The Libyan desert and the Nile Valley the sea of billowing sand without a speck of green on the side of the Libyan desert and the green, fertile, densely populated area on the valley of the Nile in Egypt.
4.What brought about this wonderful difference?
Answer: The water of the river Nile flowing down to the Mediterranean from its sources a couple of thousands of miles away was the wonderful difference.
5.What is the ‘cheering sight’, mentioned in paragraph 5?
Answer:The ‘cheering sight’ to the writer is the filled rain-fed tanks that are so common in South India.
6. What does the writer compare water in a landscape too?
Answer:The writer compares water in a landscape to the eyes in a human face.
b.Why does he make this comparison?
Answers: He makes this comparison because water reflects the mood of the hour, being bright and bay when the sun shines, turning to dark and gloomy when the sky is overcast.
7.How does the water in rain fed tanks get its color?
Answer:The silt or finely- divided soil in suspension. This color varies with the nature of the earth in the catchment area and is most vivid immediately after a fresh inflow following rain by this the water in rain fed tanks get its color.
8.What is the main cause of soil erosion?
Answer:Sudden bursts of excessively heavy rain resulting in a large runoff of surplus water are the principal factors causing soil erosion.
9.What other factors add to the erosion of precious soil?
Answer:Contributory causes to the erosion of previous soil are the slope of the land, removal of the natural protective coat of vegetation, the existence of ruts along which the.water can flow rapidly gathering momentum, and the absence of any checks to such flow.
10.How can soil erosion be prevented?
Answer:Soil erosion can be prevented by terracing of the land, construction of bunds to check the flow of water, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of appropriate types of vegetation.
11.How does the prevention of soil erosion serve a double purpose?
Answer:Adoption of techniques preventing soil erosion would also help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted, i.e., on and in the soil.
12.What are the two sources of water mentioned in paragraph 10?
Answer: The two sources of water mentioned in paragraph 10 are Rain and snowfall.
13.The land formed of silt in alluvial areas is always fertile (Say whether the statement is True or False).
_________ Takes place when water carrying silt mixes with the saltwater of the sea (Complete the sentence with the appropriate word).
15.Planting of the appropriate type of vegetation will result in _________
a. the continuance of successful agriculture.
b. the terracing of the land.
c. preventing environmental pollution.
d. reducing the momentum of the flow of water.
Answer:(d) reducing the momentum of the flow of water.
16.What does the writer mean by ‘civilized forests’?
Answer:Forests created by the deliberate planting of saplings by human beings, as contrasted with wild and untamed natural jungles.
17.Mention any two advantages of civilized forests.
Answer:Civilized forests would, directly and indirectly, prove a source of untold wealth to the country. They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste.
18.How will the development of hydro-electric power help to overcome the inadequacy of water supply?
Answer:The development of hydro-electric power would enable underground water to be tapped to a greater extent than at present, and thus help to overcome the difficulties arising from irregularity or inadequacy of other sources of supply.
19.Complete the following sentences with appropriate details:
a. The Nile Valley is the creation of ________
Answer:The river itself. It was brought down as the finest silt in its floodwaters, from the highlands of Abyssinia and from remote Central Africa, and laid down through the ages in the trough through which the Nile flows into the sea.
b. _____ are a ‘cheering sight’.
Answer:Rain-fed tanks in South India when they are full.
e. __________ the foundation of all agriculture
Answer:The upper layer of soil.
f. Ruts are formed by __________
Answer:rapidly flowing rainwater.
g. Terracing of lands helps in _____________
Answer: preventing soil erosion.
h. Indian agriculture depends heavily on _____________
Answer: seasonal rainfall.
i. Farmyard manure should not be used as ____________
j. ____________ would enable the overall development of the rural economy.
Answer:Availability of electric power.
B. Close Study:
Read the following extracts carefully. Discuss in pairs and then write the answers to the questions given below them.
1.Much of the Indian agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and is therefore very sensitive to any failure or irregularity of the same
a. In what context does the writer say these words?
Answer:The writer talks about soil erosion and the importance of conservation of water. Conservation of water would help agriculture at times of irregular or inadequate rainfall. The techniques of conservation of water would prevent soil erosion which is of great importance to agriculture.
b. What does “same” refer to?
Answer:“Same” refers to rainfall in India.
c. Why is Indian agriculture “very sensitive”?
Answer:Since Indian agriculture depends on seasonal rainfall and does not have many other sources of water, it is “very sensitive” – easily affected by inadequate or irregular rainfall.
2.They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste and would provide the necessary supplies of cheap fuel, and thus render unnecessary the wasteful conversion of farmyard manure into a form of fuel.
a. What does “they” in the first line refer to?
Answer:Vegetation like shrubs and trees grown in order to check soil erosion.
b. What is the cheap fuel referred to in the passage?
Answer: The cheap fuel referred to in the passage is Dried branches and leaves of trees grown to prevent soil erosion.
c. How would cheap fuel help the farmer?
Answer:He could preserve the farmyard manure to enrich his farmland.
III. Paragraph Writing:
Discuss in pairs/groups of 4 each and answer the following questions. Note down the important points for each question and then develop the points into one paragraph answers.
1.How does C.V. Raman show that water is the real elixir of life?
Answers:As long as we know water is the only thing that made earth a place for life to sustain and survive. In the context of the title C.V. Raman felt the importance of water once he had a chance to stand between the line that separates the Libyan Desert and the Nile Valley of Egypt.
On the one side he saw a vast desert where there is no sign of life to live in. On the other side he saw the Egyptian civilization that is greatest of all living at the valley of Nile River. He felt the importance of water and the changes it had brought over the civilizations.
C.V. Raman is know for his works on spectral lines and more precisely known for his Raman Spectra which had an influence of water for its discovery. He believed that water has the power to solve all the world mystery. According to him water is the true elixir of life. we humans need to protect it rater spending time on finding the elixir of immortal life.
2.What are the various causes of soil erosion? How can we prevent it?
- Heavy rain
- Slope of land, removal of vegetation, ruts which enable water to flow faster and absence of my barriers to check flow of water.
- preventive action would be terracing of land, consumer action sounds to check flow, contour cultivation, planting of vegetation.
- Crop Rotation: Rotating in high-residue crops — such as corn, hay, and small grain — can reduce erosion as the layer of residue protects topsoil from being carried away by wind and water.
- Conservation Tillage: Conventional tillage produces a smooth surface that leaves soil vulnerable to erosion.
Paragraph: C.V. Raman tells that soil erosion is a major problem in India. Soil erosion happens due to several reasons: Firstly, a sudden downpour of heavy rain can result in excess water carrying topsoil into the sea. Secondly, the slope of the land and the removal of the natural protective coat of vegetation, and the existence of ruts along which water can flow rapidly can give to erosion. Thirdly, the lack of bunds to prevent water from flowing forcefully can lead to erosion of soil.
3.What does C.V. Raman say about rain-fed tanks?
- Rain-fed tanks common in South India.
- Beautiful when full.
- Shallow but bottom does not show up.
- Play a vital role in agriculture.
- Are surprisingly large in size.
Paragraph: C. V. Raman tells us that rain-fed tanks are common in South India and they are beautiful when they are full. But they are not well maintained. These tanks are shallow. The water in these tanks is full of silt. These tanks play an important role in South Indian agriculture. Some of them are large and look beautiful when the sun rises or sets over them.
IV. Vocabulary Exercises:
A. Match the Following with answers
|1. teeming with||Full of|
|2. precipitation||Separation of solid matter from liquid|
|3. harnessing||Controlling and using|
|4. alluvial||The area created with matter deposited by rivers|
|5. catchment||An area from which rainwater flows into a particular drive|
|6. civilized forests||Man-made forests|
|7. afforestation||Systematic planting of suitable trees|
|8. artesian||Spring /underground water|
|9. successive||Coming one after the other|
|10. erosion||e. wearing away gradually|
B. Fill in the blanks with the antonyms Of the words underlined.
- The rain-fed tanks are shallow, not deep.
- The authorities who talk about afforestation are actively engaged in deforestation
- The rural students have fared better than their urban counterparts.
- It is a big tragedy that fertile minds are engaged in a barren debate.
- The fruits were fresh, but the cream was stale
- Ancient monuments are aesthetically displayed in a modern setting.
- In his writings, it is difficult to segregate fact from fiction
- The joy in the new-found prosperity made them forget their days of poverty/adversity
- When he saw her courage he felt ashamed of his own cowardice
- We need to overcome our temptation, not succumb to it.